RefNoESC
Alternative Reference number1988/50
TitleEnglish Steel Corporation Limited, River Don Works, Sheffield and North Street Works, Openshaw, Manchester [Draft]
AdminHistoryIn 1955, English Steel Corporation Limited converted from a Company to a Holding Company, owned by 1. Vickers Limited (75% share) and 2. Cammell Laird and Company Limited (25% share).

In turn, English Steel Corporation owned:

1. Wholly-owned manufacturing companies:

English Steel Forge and Engineering Corporation Limited, Sheffield and Manchester
English Steel Rolling Mills Corporation Limited, Sheffield
English Steel Castings Corporation Limited, Sheffield
English Steel Spring Corporation Limited, Sheffield
English Steel Tool Corporation Limited, Sheffield and Manchester
English Steel Magnet Corporation Limited, Manchester
Taylor Brothers and Company Limited, Manchester
The Darlington Forge Limited, Darlington
Steel Wheel and Axle South Africa (Pty.) Limited, South Africa

2. Partly-owned manufacturing companies:

Firth-Vickers Stainless Steels Limited (50% owned by ESC; 50% owne by Thomas Firth and John Brown Limited)
Canadian Steel Wheel Limited (50% owned by ESC; 50% owned by A.V. Roe Canada Limited)

3. Other companies wholly-owned:

English Steel Export Corporation Limited, Sheffield and London
Industrial Steels Limited, Sheffield
Industrial Tools Limited, Sheffield and Manchester
Davis and Lloyd (1955) Limited
Industrial Tools (Canada) Limited, Canada
Compania Inglesa De Aceros, S.R.L., Argentina
J.T. Coutts and Company Limited, Canada
Industrial Tools Pty. Limited, Australia
Industrial Steels and Tools (Pvt) Limited, Central Africa Federation
Montreal Steel Wheel Company Limited, Canada
Easicut Tools Limited, Canada
ENGLISH STEEL CORPORATION
The English Steel Forge and Engineering Corporation of River Don Works, Sheffield and North Street Works, Openshaw, Manchester was formed in 1928 to take over the steel interests in Vickers, Vickers-Armstrongs and Cammell, Laird and Company (except for interests in guns, ammunition and tanks).

The constituent parts from Vickers-Armstrongs were: River Don Works, Sheffield; Attercliffe works, Sheffield; Holme Lane Works, Sheffield; Openshaw Works, Manchester; Drop forging plant at Elswick. The constituent parts from Vickers were: Taylor Brothers and Company. The constituent parts from Cammell, Laird and Company were: Cyclops Steel and Iron works, Sheffield; Grimesthorpe works, Sheffield; The Yorkshire Steel and Iron Works, Penistone.

In 1929 ESC became a public company; Vickers held the majority of the shares and Cammell Laird held the rest. In 1934 a new company called Firth-Vickers Stainless Steels was formed to acquire the stainless steel interests of Thomas Firth and John Brown and the English Steel Corporation, which would jointly own the new company. Following nationalisation by the Labour Government in 1951, ESC became part of the Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain. Shortly after, this decision was reversed by the subsequent Conservative Government and the steel industry was denationalised again. By 1961 ESC was the parent organisation of 20 subsidiaries employing 16,000 persons. In 1967 the steel industry was nationalised again and ESC was incorporated into British Steel Corporation (BSC). Later, in the 1980s, BSC's associate company, Sheffield Forgemasters Limited, ran the former ESC plants.

BRITISH STEEL CORPORATION
The Iron and Steel Act of 1967 brought the 14 largest steel companies, representing about 90 per cent of the UK's steel making capacity, into public ownership as the British Steel Corporation. This included ESC and subsidiaries.

ARMSTRONG WHITWORTH
Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth and Company Limited was founded by William Armstrong in 1847, becoming Armstrong Mitchell and then Armstrong Whitworth through mergers. The company built armaments, ships, locomotives, automobiles and aircraft. In 1927, it merged with Vickers Limited to form Vickers-Armstrongs.

VICKERS SONS AND MAXIM; VICKERS; VICKERS-ARMSTRONGS
Vickers was an engineering conglomerate. The company was established in 1829 as Naylor, Hutchinson, Vickers and Company (Edward Vickers was a miller; his wife was the daughter of a local steel maker George Naylor. His brother, William, owned a steel rolling operation at Millsands. Edward's investments in the railway industry allowed him to gain control of the company, based at Millsands). In 1854 the company was known as Naylor, Vickers and Company. In 1863 the company moved to a new site in Sheffield on the River Don in Brightside. In 1867, the company became Vickers, Sons and Company. In 1897 the company name changed to Vickers, Sons and Maxim. In 1911 the name changed to Vickers. In 1927 Vickers merged many of its engineering and armaments assets with those of Armstrong Whitworth becoming Vickers-Armstrongs. Vickers was the major partner in the new company with two thirds of the shares while Armstrong Whitworth recieved one third.

CAMMELL LAIRD AND CO. LIMITED
Cammell, Laird and Company was formed in 1903 when the Sheffield company Charles Cammell and Company (Cyclops Steel and Iron Works, Sheffield) took over the Birkenhead shipyards of Laird Brothers. This enabled the new company to manufacture armoured warships within its own jurisdiction, which was an arrangement favoured by the Royal Navy at the time. It continued trading until 1953.

TAYLOR BROTHERS AND COMPANY
Established at the Clarence Iron Works in Leeds in 1857. The business moved to Manchester in 1921 and the factory in Leeds closed. In 1928 the English Steel Corporation was formed to take over the steel interests in Vickers, Vickers-Armstrongs and Cammell, Laird and Company (except for interests in guns, ammunition and tanks). The contribution from Vickers was Taylor Brothers and Co.

SHEFFIELD MANUFACTURERS STEEL SYNDICATE
A cooperative purchasing syndicate that had a special relationship with a New Caledonian supplier, whereby members were able to secure financial advantages through participation.
DescriptionRecords of:

Armstrong-Whitworth (AW), 1877 - 1930s
British Steel Corporation (BSC), 1967 - 1986
Cammell Laird, 1890 - 1929
Cocker Brothers, 1886 - 1971
Charles Cammell, 1777 - 1916
Cocker Brothers, 1886 - 1971
Darlington Forge, 1929 - 1967
Douglas Vickers Scholarship Trust, 1908 - 1968
English Steel Corporation (ESC), 1928 - 1970
Firth Brown, 1970
Firth-Vickers, 1935 - 1965
Industrial Steels; Industrial Steels and Tools; Industrial Tools (Canada), 1922 - 1965
Isaiah Oldbury, 1901 - 1914
J. Rigby and Sons, 1900 - 1926
John Brown, 1893 - 1929
Le Nickel, 1937 - 1939
Modern Hardmetals, 1949 - 1960
Montreal Steel Wheel, 1951 - 1955
Portway Forgings, 1948 - 1976
Shepcote Lane Rolling Mills, 1954 - 1966
Steel Manufacturers Nickel Syndicate, 1901 - 1957
Taylor Brothers, 1905 - 1968
H.P. Tay, 1936 - 1970
United Steel Companies, 1910s - 1972
Vickers Limited; Vickers Maxim; Vickers-Armstrongs, 1857 - 1965
Date1777 - 1986
Extent1,070 items
AccessStatusOpen
LevelCollection
RelatedMaterialSee spreadsheet with box listing G:\DEL\Libraries\Leisure and Culture\Archives & Local Studies\Archive Catalogues\draft catalogues to import into calm\1988-50
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