TitleEdward Carpenter (1844 - 1929), Campaigner for Homosexual Equality and Socialist Writer
AdminHistoryEdward Carpenter was born at Brighton in Sussex in 1844, into a middle class family with a strong naval tradition. After his education at Brighton College and Trinity Hall, Cambridge (where he was a Fellow from 1868 to 1874), he took Orders. But he was already forming opinions similar to those of the advanced freethinkers of his day, and after emotional and intellectual struggles which made him ill he decided, in 1873, that he could not conscientiously remain in the Church. He joined the staff of the Cambridge University Extension Movement, and it was as a lecturer in astronomy, history of music and other subjects, to audiences drawn from many walks of life, that he came to Sheffield in 1877.

When Carpenter adopted the Socialism of William Morris, with a strong admixture of the Anarchism of Prince Kropotkin (which appealed very much to one who, however sincerely a Socialist, was at heart an individualist) he found ready support in Sheffield people and he was one of the founders of the Sheffield Socialist Society.

When he suffered from ill-health he joined a working man's family at Bradway. It was during this time that he wrote 'Towards Democracy', a long free-verse poem in the style of Walt Whitman, whose work he much admired. Finally he gave up lecturing and joined his friends in running an orchard and market garden at Millthorpe near Holmesfield in Derbyshire, where he lived until 1922. He took a fair share of the work and marketing, and devoted his spare time to writing, until he became well enough known to give up gardening and make a living by writing

He had not set out to "live the simple life"; but living in the country and carrying out manual duties, suited his health and temperament so well that he ultimately became, to thousands of readers, the apostle of a happier, quieter and freer way of life than was the usual middle-class habit of the time. Millthorpe became a place of pilgrimage for people interested in Socialism and in the philosophies with which his name is associated.

Edward Carpenter died at Guildford in 1929.

To sum up his philosophy is not easy; for he never set out to be a "man with a message," but sought for and found an opportunity to suit his own tastes ; but in trying to express his own individuality he voiced the needs of many others to whom the social duties, heavy diet and clothing, and distrust of emotion, which laid nineteenth century society open to the charge of being stuffy and repressive, were becoming increasingly burdensome. He wanted for others what he found for himself. He looked to Socialism to release the labouring classes from overwork, grinding poverty, and ugliness of environment; he urged upon the middle and upper classes (especially their women) a wider and freer education, a more buoyant, simple and useful sphere of activity, a more intelligent treatment of the emotional problems involved in friendship and marriage. He sought to lead no party; he looked upon himself primarily as a writer, putting before his readers, in simple and graceful prose, a new viewpoint, honestly striving to deal with fundamentals. At the root of his outlook on life was a belief that all animate creatures are variations of one life, linked together by a fundamental nature. So, as anything alive, man or brute, whom he considered to be repressed or exploited, found in him a ready sympathiser and champion, all kinds of reformers admired and used his writings. In expressing and freeing his own very individual views and temperament he worked for everybody.
DescriptionCarpenter was a man of many talents, fervent enthusiasms, and attractive personality. He had a singular capacity for making and keeping friends, and made a deep impression on everyone he met. Many of his ideas have become so much a part of modern thought that they now seem almost commonplace, and even his books are only pale reflections of the vivid spirit which those who knew him loved. It is fortunate that his library has been preserved with sufficient approach to completeness to give some idea of the extent of his interests and the interrelations between his ideas and those of contemporaries.

The contents of the Carpenter Collection, which was donated to Sheffield City Libraries in 1933, fall into two classes. The first contains over 1,000 books and pamphlets which belonged to him. The second consists of many editions and translations of Carpenter's own works, copies of almost every periodical to which he contributed, and 2,280 papers, including the manuscripts of nearly all his books, letters from friends and publishers, and notebooks. This part of the collection has been augmented by welcome gifts from some of his friends.

The arrangement of the Collection:

Manuscript lecture and research notes, correspondence ordination papers, diaries and note books, and other papers mainly by Carpenter (Carpenter/Mss)
Manuscript lecture and research notes (Carpenter/Mss/1-338)
Personal correspondence (Carpenter/Mss/351-386)
Anniversaries (Carpenter/Mss/387, Mss/338/1-38, Mss/311/1-153, Mss/312/1-216, Mss/313/1-39)
Edward Carpenter International Memorial Trust (Carpenter/Mss/388)
Diaries/engagement books (Carpenter/Mss/259-266)
Letters from publishers (Carpenter/Mss/267-270)
Notebooks and notes (Carpenter/Mss/274-310, 335-337)
Family matters (Carpenter/mss/314-323, 339-350)
Periodicals (Carpenter/CPer)
Carpenter's Library (Carpenter/Library)
Newspaper cuttings (Carpenter/NC)
Financial matters (Carpenter/Mss/324-329)
Photographs (Carpenter/Mss/394 and Carpenter/photographs)
Sandal templates, orders and correspondence (Carpenter/X)
Personal possessions and artefacts belonging to Edward Carpenter (ie sandals etc) (Carpenter/W)
Offprints etc. of articles, etc relating to Carpenter (Carpenter/pub)
Miscellaneous papers (Carpenter/Y)

(Acc. 1981/48)
Four letters

(Acc. 1987/83) Photocopy of letter from Edward Carpenter to Mr. Wilkinson. Original dated 6 March 1905.

(Acc. 1990/78)
Page from 'Justice' 18th May 1895 Including a Letter from Edward Carpenter re prison reform and Walsall Anarchists (Photocopy)

(Acc. 1998/130)
3 booklets of transcripts of letters from Edward Carpenter to Sandruro Ishikawa. Each booklet contains an English and Japanese transcription. [20th cent]

(Acc. 1999/100)
Photocopies of correspondence between Sanshiro Ishikawa and Edward Carpenter (1910-1920), Walter M Clement (1913 & 1929), Dorothea Clement (1910-1929), Henry S Salt (1914), Catherine L Salt (1914), Edith Moore (1920-1937)

(Acc. 2000/5)
Novel 'The Ted Carp Production' By Rony Robinson, 1971

(Acc. 2002/140)
Correspondence, mostly to Robert Sharland of Bristol, c.1880-1924; photographs, mostly unidentified [of similar date?]; pamphlets and other printed material by or about Carpenter, 1883-1939

(Acc. 2003/70)
Postcards, letters, photographs and printed material from Edward Carpenter to W E Hopkin, 1894 - 1921.

(Acc. 2004/34)
Books by Edward Carpenter, campaigner and socialist writer, and books about Edward Carpenter by Tom Swan, Ernest Crosby and Edward Lewis, 1883-1929.

(Acc. 2005/103)
'Iolaus: An Anthology of Friendship', edited by Edward Carpenter, 2nd edition, 1906

(Acc. 2007/70)
Numerous printed items, 19th - 20th cent

(Acc. 2015/15)
Material relating to Leon Dunstan (1890 - 1976) illustrating his friendship with Edward Carpenter (1844 - 1929):
Copy of 'Towards Democracy' by Edward Carpenter with inscription at front in Carpenter's hand: 'To my dear Leon from Edward C.', 1 May 1916. Also includes inscription: 'My friend in England, 1915, France, 1916, Italy, 1917 and Egypt, 1918'.
Postcard showing Edward Carpenter on front (by Lena Connell, 50 Grove End Road) sent to Leon Dunstan from [Edward] Carpenter and [George] Merrill (names partly obliterated), [c. 1920s].
Picture of Leon Dunstan and Edward Carpenter 'at his Notting Hill residence' showing both men sat together sewing, [early 20th cent].
Postcard showing view of Carpenter's home at Millthorpe Cottage, Millthorpe, [early 20th cent].
Date19th - 21st cent


Extentc. 2,500 items
RelatedMaterialRelated information available at Sheffield Local Studies Library (updated to 6 Aug 2007):

A bibliography of Edward Carpenter: a catalogue of books, manuscripts, letters etc by and about Edward Carpenter in the Carpenter Collection in [Sheffield Archives], with some notes from other sources, Sheffield City Libraries, 1949 (012 Carp S)

A catalogue of the portion of Edward Carpenter's library now in [Sheffield Archives], 1963 (017.3 SQ) [Typescript]

An interesting collection of books, pamphlets and manuscripts by or concerning Sheffield literary figures including a collection of works by Edward Carpenter, Henry Spencer and Sons, [catalogue of the sale on 13 Oct 1971) (MP 2034 M)

[Dictionary of Labour Biography: Sheffield connections] (923.31 SQ)

[Photocopy of local biographies, including that of Carpenter, taken from the Dictionary of Labour Biography]

Poet of Democracy: Edward Carpenter's dream, aeons of peace and progress (taken from The Times Literary Supplement, 2 Sep 1944) (MP 1779 M)

Beedham, Ann, 'Peeks at the past in Sheffield and the surrounding area', Pickard Publishing, 2002. ISBN 09544045 0 5 (pp.99-100 'Edward Carpenter')

Carpenter, Edward (ed) 'Chants of Labour - a song book of the people, with 2 designs by Walter Crane', 6th edition, 1922 (784.6 SST)

Carpenter, Edward, 'My Days and Dreams: being autobiographical notes',
Allen & Unwin, 1916. (B. Carp SST)

Carpenter, Edward, 'Sheffield and Socialism' (with an introduction by David Blunkett), 1993, ISBN 0 907123104 (first published as part of My Days and Dreams, 1916) (335.1 SST)

[Programme of service] Edward Carpenter, 1844-1929: The first annual memorial service to be held at Millthorpe (Holmesfield) at the rear of his late residence, 29 Jun 1930 (MP 28 M and MP 1220 M)

[Programme of service] Edward Carpenter, 1844-1929: The second annual memorial service to be held at Millthorpe (Holmesfield) at the rear of his late residence, or if wet in Mr. Kay's barn, 5 Jul 1931 (MP 1221 M)

Handbill for annual Carpenter memorial service, Cordwell Valley, 6 Jul 1947 (MP 536 S)

Memorial service, 6 July 1947 [with programme and record of 1946 memorial service] (in) Local Pamphlets, vol.175, no.2 (042 S)

Account of Carpenter Memorial Service in 'Sheffield Forward', Vol.6 No.112, Sep 1948 (p. 4) (352.042 SF)

Handbill for Carpenter Sunday: Cordwell Valley, 26th annual service, 3 Jul 1955 at Mill Farm, Millthorpe (duplicated typescript) (MP 843 M)

[Edward Carpenter Fellowship] Service in commemoration of the life and work of Edward Carpenter to be held on Sunday 4th Jul 1948 … followed by a record of the speeches delivered on the occasion of last year's service, 1948 (Local Pamphlets Vol. 175, No. 3 (042 S)

Sketch in 'Our Fancy Portrait Gallery' (p. 72) (920.04274 SQ)

Biographical article in 'Vibes', No. 6, April 1995 (p. 10) (171 S)

Edward Carpenter Ramble, Out House Project [1989] [Duplicated] (MP 3052 S)

Armitage, Harold, 'Note re connection with Sheffield' in 'Chantry Land', 1910, (p. 261) (942.51 S)

Backett, L B 'Pure Food for Workers: 60 meatless recipes, 1920s (641.56 SST)

Baruah, D. K., 'An unacknowledged source of some of D H Lawrence's ideas', 1969 (Local Pamphlets, Vol. 321 No. 2 and copy taken from 'The Indian Journal of English Studies', Vol. 10, 1969, pp.58-70. Local Pamphlets Vol. 275 No. 15 (042 S))

Baruah, D. K., 'Edward Carpenter and the Early Sheffield Socialists' in 'Transactions of the Hunter Archaeological Society', Vol. 10, part 1, 1971, pp.54-62. (913.4274 S)

Brome, Vincent, 'Havelock Ellis, philosopher of sex: a biography', Routledge & Kegan Paul,1979 ISBN 0710000197 (B Elli ST)

Carpenter, Edward, lecturer. 'Edward Carpenter, 1844-1929: democratic author and poet :a restatement and reappraisal': Dr. Williams's Trust, 1970, Friends of Dr. Williams's Library, 24th Lecture,(Local pamphlets, Vol. 271 No. 11 (042 S)

Childs, Steven, 'The Sheffield Prophet of Socialism' in 'Sheffield Forward', Aug 1977 (p. 6) (331.88 SF)

Delavenay, Emile, 'D H Lawrence and Edward Carpenter: a study in Edwardian Transition', Heinemann, 1971. ISBN 0434186201 (B Carp S)

Hartley, Edward, 'Edward Carpenter' (Sheffield City Libraries, Local Studies Leaflet, 1979) 0900660457 (942.74 SQ)

Hatton, Keith, 'Edward Carpenter and Millthorpe' [Illustrated biographical article, particularly on his years at Millthorpe in north Derbyshire in] 'Derbyshire Life and Countryside', Jan 1996, vol.61, no.1, (p. 28-29) (052.51 SQ)

Kelly, C. M. 'The Norton Pioneers'; [Biographical details and photograph in] 'Sheffield Spectator', Vol. 2, No. 16, Jul 1966 (p. 64) (052.74 SQ)

Kelly, C. M.' 'The Sage of Cordwell, some account of Edward Carpenter' in 'Derbyshire Life and Countryside', Vol. 34 No. 8, Aug 1969, pp.43, 45. (052.51 SQ)

Laity, Paul, 'A Brief History of Cranks', [taken from 'Cabinet Magazine', Winter 2005/2006, issue 20] (MP 5784 M)

Lovelock, Yann, 'Extracts from 'York Minster', 'Who are you', 'I heard a voice', 'I come forth from the darkness', 'A scene in London', 'Empire', 'Sheffield', 'Parted Lips', 'Lo! What a world I create', and biographical details in 'Poetry from Sheffield, 1750 - 1970', 1970, (pp. 42 - 47) (821.08 S)

McLachlan, H. J., 'A Prophet of our Time: Edward Carpenter 1845 - 1929' (taken from 'Faith and Freedom', Vol. 32, Part 3, No. 96, pp.140-146, Summer 1979) (MP 2969 M)

Moore, Bill, 'What Attracted Ruskin and Carpenter to Sheffield?', [address to Conference on Ruskin, Morris and Carpenter. A Vision of Britain: Industrialism and Beyond] (typescript) 1993 (MP 4682 M)

Pearsal, Ronald l., 'Opinions on sex, passim in 'The Worm in the bud: the world of Victorian sexuality', Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969, SBN 297 176633 (301.42 ST)

Redfern, Roger, 'Seventy years of conservation': [brief note on Carpenter's influence on the conservation of the countryside and rambling] in 'Derbyshire Life and Countryside', Vol. 60, No. 4, Apr 1995 (pp. 40-42) (052.51 SQ)

Redfern, R. A., 'Biographical details in 'Peakland Days', Robert Hale & Co., 1970. ISBN 0709118597 (pp. 135-140) (914.251 S)

Redfern, R. A., 'In the footsteps of writers and thinkers', Peak District Magazine, December 2001 pp.42-43 (052.51 S)

Robinson, Rony, Review 'Suffrage, Sodomy and Pseudo-Socialism' by Andy Gill of 'Free for all' in 'Darts' No. 368, Nov 1973 (p. 9) (378.4274 SF)

[Robinson, Rony], 'Edward Carpenter lives!' [play script] [1972] (typescript 822 Robi SSTQ

[Robinson, Rony], 'Edward Carpenter lives!' [programme of play] (in) Local Pamphlets, Vol.30, no.4 (042 SQ)

Robinson, Rony, 'The Ted Carp Tradition', Hodder & Stoughton Ltd., 1971 (823 Robi SST)

Rowbotham, Sheila, 'The publication of 'Love's Coming of Age', and Carpenter's ideas on women and the Socialist movement' in Lane, Allen, 'Women, Resistance and Revolution', 1972, The Penguin Press. ISBN 0713903465 (pp. 89-92) (396 ST)

Rowbotham, Sheila, 'Essay: in search of Carpenter', [taken from 'History Workshop' July 3rd, Spring 1977] [also includes a letter discussing the essay and printed in 'History Workshop' July 5th, Spring 1978.] (MP 3294 M)

Robb, Graham 'Strangers: Homosexual Love in the Nineteenth Century' (Picador, 2003), (ISBN 0330482238) TO CHECK LSL REF + ARC REF (Sheffield Archives: BIOG/CAR)

Rowbotham, Sheila, 'Edward Carpenter: A Life of Liberty and Love ' (Verso, 2008) (ISBN-13 978-1-84467-295-0)

Smith, T d'Arch, 'Account of Carpenter's writing on sexual subjects in Love in Earnest' Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1970. ISBN 0710067305 (821.09 ST)

Taylor, Philip, 'Edward Carpenter (1844-1929)',1998. [printout from the Carpenter website on 28th January 2000). (MP 3274 M)

Tsuzuki, Chushichi, 'Edward Carpenter 1844-1929: prophet of human fellowship' (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980), ISBN 0521233712 (B Carp S )

Winsten, Stephen, 'Details of Carpenter's relationship with H S S Salt' in 'Salt and his Circle', 1951 (B Salt ST)

Newspaper articles at Sheffield Local Studies Library:

Obituary and photograph
(Newspaper cuttings relating to Sheffield, Vol. 35 page 122) (942.74 SF)

Picture of the Carpenter hut in Cordwell Valley
(Newspaper cuttings relating to Sheffield, Vol. 12 page 140) (942.74 SF)

Biographical notice
Sheffield Telegraph, 29 June 1929 (page 7)

Notes on the first post war memorial service
Sheffield Telegraph, 8 July 1946 (page 3)

Picture and description of the memorial service in Cordwell Valley
Sheffield Telegraph, 7 July 1947 (page 3)

Photograph of bronze bust by Dorothea Clement
Daily Independent, 18 Jan 1935 (page 12)

Picture of the Carpenter hut in Cordwell Valley
Daily Independent, 6 April 1935 (page 7) and
Sheffield Independent 1 Jul 1929 (page 6)

Portrait by T B Gibbs, 1921 given to Weston Park Museum
The Star 23 Sep 1949 (page 6)

Lectures in Sheffield
Sheffield Local Register, 16 Oct 1908

Work in Sheffield
Sheffield Daily Telegraph, 29 Jun 1929 (page 9)

Announcement that Carpenter's house at Millthorpe is for sale
Daily Independent, 25 Jun 1938 (page 9)

Note that Carpenter's house at Millthorpe is to be auctioned
The Star, 16 Sep 1950 (page 5)

22 images are available on the Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield catalogue, including cottage at Millthorpe, bronze bust, gravestone, 'Sheffield Socialists', Carpenter with George Merrill and George Hukin etc
Related material at other libraries and archives (collection reference numbers are given where known):

Note: searches of the following online databases may reveal further information: the Archives Hub (, The UK National Archives (, the British Library (

Correspondence and papers 1885 - 1930: British Library (Add MSS 70536, 70556)

Literary manuscripts c. 1880 - 1900 (444 pages): University of British Columbia Library (see Union list of MSS in Canadian repositories 1975)

Miscellaneous letters and papers including autobiographical notes: Manchester University - John Rylands Library (C.F. Sixsmith Edward Carpenter Collection Eng MS 1171)

Literary papers: University of Texas at Austin: Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center Library (see location register of 20th century English literary MSS 1988)

Huxley Papers at Rice University, Houston, Texas include correspondence between Carpenter and Sir Julian S Huxley (1887-1975, English Zoologist).

Letters to C R Ashbee in The Papers of Charles Robert Ashbee: King's College Archive Centre, Cambridge (ref. CRA)

Twelve letters to Granville Bantock: Birmingham University Information Services, Special Collections Department

Letters to J N Dalton, 1872 - 1926: Oxford University: Worcester College Library

Letters to the Fabian Society, 1894 - 1912: London University: London School of Economics Library, Archives Division (Fabian Society Archive)

Correspondence (10 items) with E M Forster, 1916 - 1918: Cambridge University: King's College Archive Centre

Letters to John and Katharine Bruce Glasier, 1887 - 1920: Liverpool University: Special Collections and Archives

Correspondence with the Independent Labour Party, 1894 - 1926: London University: London School of Economics Library, Archives Division (BLPES/ILP/Section 4 passim)

Forty three letters to Constantin Sarantchoff, 1906 - 1918 in Papers of Harold Bing: Nottingham University Library, Department of Manuscripts and Special Collections (MS 486)

Letters to Edward Pease, 1894 - 1912: London University: London School of Economics Library, Archives Division

The Whitman Collection: Bolton Archives & Local Studies (ZWN)

Walt Whitman's papers in the Library of Congress, USA ( accessed 20 Aug 2008)

Fabian Society: Correspondence with eminent persons: Edward Carpenter, 1885 - 1912 London School of Economics (FABIAN SOCIETY/A/6/3 )

Lot of correspondence and ephemera between Edward Carpenter and the Ashmore family of Victoria Street and later Highfield Road, Newbold, Chesterfield, Derbyshire, 1878 - 1913: Derbyshire Record Office (purchased at auction in 2019).
Publications about Carpenter or that have used the Carpenter Collection (as of July 2007):

See also Dictionary of National Biography (available free at most libraries via the internet)

A Bibliography of Edward Carpenter (Sheffield: Sheffield City Libraries, 1949) (copy available in Sheffield Local Studies Library ref. 012 c 225 s)

Fabian economic and social thought Series 1, The papers of Edward Carpenter, 1844-1929, from Sheffield Archives, Sheffield Libraries and Information Services. (Adam Matthew 1994. "A listing and guide to the microfilm edition." (1857110358)

Aldrich, Robert F., 'Colonialism and Homosexuality' (Routledge, 2003)

Angles, Jeffrey M., 'Writing the Love of Boys: Representations of Male-Male Desire in the Literature of Murayama Kaita and Edogawa Ranpo' (Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University, 2003)

Barua, Dilip Kumar, 'The Life and Work of Edward Carpenter in the Light of Intellectual, Religious, Political and Literary Movements of the Later Half of the Nineteenth Century' (PhD Thesis, University of Sheffield, 1966)

Beith, Gilbert (ed), 'Edward Carpenter, in appreciation' (G. Allen & Unwin Ltd, [1931]) (Copy available at Sheffield Central Lending Library ref. B.CARP))

Bell, T. H., 'Edward Carpenter, the English Tolstoi' (The Libertarian Group, 1932)

Bernard, Henry, 'Edward Carpenter' (History Workshop Journal, 1978 Vol. 6, No. 1)

Bland, Lucy and Doan, Laura L., 'Sexology Uncensored: The Documents of Sexual Science' (University of Chicago Press, 1998)

Blasius, Mark, and Shane Phelan. 'We Are Everywhere: A Historical Sourcebook of Gay and Lesbian Politics'(Routledge, 1997)

Blodgett, Harold, 'Walt Whitman in England' (Humphrey Milford, 1934).

Brome, Vincent, 'Havelock Ellis, Philosopher of Sex: A Biography' (Routledge & K. Paul, 1979) (Copy of 1969 edition available in Sheffield Local Studies Library ref. B Elli ST and Sheffield Arts and Social Sciences Library ref. B.ELLI)

Bronski, Michael, 'Culture Clash: The Making of Gay Sensibility' (South End Press, 1984)

Brown, Leslie Kathleen, 'Staging the Mystical: The Photographs of Anne Brigman and the Mystical Philosophy of Edward Carpenter' (MA Thesis University of Texas at Austin, 1998)

Brown, Tony, 'Edward Carpenter and the Discussion of the Cow in The Longest Journey' (The Review of English Studies, New Series, Vol. 33, No. 129, Feb 1982, pp. 58-62)

Brown, Tony, 'Edward Carpenter and The Waste Land' (The Review of English Studies, New Series, Vol. 34, No. 135, Aug 1983, pp. 312-315)

Brown, Tony, (ed), 'Edward Carpenter and late Victorian radicalism' (Cass, 1990)

Buckton, Oliver Samuel, 'Closet dramas: Strategies of secrecy and disclosure in four Victorian autobiographies' (Ph.D., Cornell University, 1992)

Buckton, Oliver S., 'Secret Selves: Confession and Same-sex Desire in Victorian Autobiography' (UNC Press, 1998)

Cachin, M. F., 'From Adam's Peak to Elephanta: Edward Carpenter with the meeting of India: Great Britain and the Overseas' (proceedings of Congress French Company of Victorian and Edwardian Studies, Conference No. 16, Limoges, France (01/1993) 1994, No. 39, pp. 187-203, published by the University Paul Valéry, Center of Victorian and Edwardian Research and Studies, Montpellier, France) (copy available in Sheffield Local Studies Library ref. C B Carp SQ)

Collins, Marcus, 'Modern Love: An Intimate History of Men and Women in Twentieth-Century Britain' (Atlantic Books, 2004)

Copley, Anthony, 'A Spiritual Bloomsbury: Hinduism and Homosexuality in the Lives and Writing of Edward Carpenter, E. M. Forster, and Christopher Isherwood' (Religious Studies Review Vol. 33 No. 1, pp. 83-83) (Copy available at Sheffield Local Studies Library)

Crosby, Ernest Howard, 'Edward Carpenter, poet and prophet' (London 1905)

Delavenay, Emile, 'D.H. Lawrence and Edward Carpenter: A Study in Edwardian Transition' (Heinemann, 1971) (copy available in Sheffield Local Studies Library ref. 225 S)

Doan, Laura L. 'Fashioning Sapphism: The Origins of a Modern English Lesbian Culture' (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001)

Duffes, Melissa Wells, 'The English Arts and Crafts Movement: Responses to Industrialism Through the Writings of William Morris, Edward Carpenter, William Lethaby, Arthur Penty and Eric Gill' (MA Thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1993)

Eagleton, Terence Francis, 'Nature and Spirit A Study of Edward Carpenter in His Intellectual Context' (PhD Thesis, University of Cambridge, 1968)

Fagan, Kathleen McCarrick, 'Edward Carpenter and the Revolt against Respectability' (MA Thesis, University of Wisconsin)

Fryman, Jenny, 'William Morris and Edward Carpenter: Back to the Land and the Simple Life, 1880-1910' (University of Gloucestershire, 2002)

Geoghegan, V., 'Edward Carpenter's England Revisited' (History of Political Thought Vol. 24, No. 3, 2003, pp. 509-527)

Gershenowitz, Harry. 'Two Lamarckians: Walt Whitman and Edward Carpenter' (Walt Whitman Review 1984, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 35-39)

Hale, Piers J., 'Labor and the Human Relationship with Nature: The Naturalization of Politics in the Work of Thomas Henry Huxley, Herbert George Wells, and William Morris' (Journal of the History of Biology, Vol. 36, No2 (June 2003), pp. 249-284)

Hardy, Dennis, 'Utopian England: Community Experiments, 1900-1945' (Studies in history, planning, and the environment. London: E & FN Spon, 2000)

Hartley, Edward, 'Edward Carpenter, 1844 - 1929' (Sheffield City Libraries, 1979) (Copies available at Sheffield Archives search room library, Sheffield Local Studies Library ref. (942.74 SQ) and Sheffield Arts and Social Sciences Library ref. B.CARP))

Hartley,Ted, 'Edward Carpenter and the New Life' (History Workshop Journal, 1978, No. 5, pp. 218 - 219)

Henderson, Linda Dalrymple 'Mysticism as the "Tie That Binds": The Case of Edward Carpenter and Modernism' (Art Journal, Vol. 46, No. 1, Mysticism and Occultism in Modern Art (Spring, 1987), pp. 29-37)

'My Dear Sanshiro: Edward Carpenter and his Japanese disciple' (Hitotsubashi Journal of Social Studies, Vol. 6 No. 1 (whole number 6), Nov 1972) (Copy available in Sheffield Archives ref. Carpenter Pamphlets Vol. 7)

Hynes, Samuel Lynn, 'Edwardian Turn of Mind: First World War and English Culture' (1992) (Copy available in Sheffield Local Studies Library ref. 942.082 ST)

Immer, Stephen Clair, 'The Philosophy of Edward Carpenter: British Poetic Radicalism'. MA Thesis, University of Oregon, Dept. of History, 1968) (copy available in Sheffield Local Studies Library ref. C B C 225 SQ)

Inada, Atsuko, 'An Attempt in Edward Carpenter's Pioneering Thought
on Restructuring Community' Seigakuin University (

Inada, Atsuko, 'A Subterranean Stem of a Critique of Modern Civilization -Sanshiro Ishikawa and Edward Carpenter' (Studies in Comparative Culture, Vol. 25, pp. 80-90)

Leib, F.B., 'The Moral Vision of Edward Carpenter: Sacred Homosexuality and the Genesis of Gay Liberation' (PhD Thesis, Temple University, 1995)

Lewis, Edward, 'Edward Carpenter: an exposition and an appreciation' (Methuen [1915]) (Copy available at Sheffield Central Lending Library ref. B.CARP))

Livesey, Ruth, 'Morris, Carpenter, Wilde, and the Political Aesthetics of Labor' (in Victorian Literature and Culture, 2004, Vol. 32, pp. 601-616)

Losey, Jay, and William D. Brewer. 'Mapping Male Sexuality: Nineteenth-Century England' (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2000)

McLachlan, H. J., 'A Prophet of our Time: Edward Carpenter 1845 - 1929' ('Faith and Freedom', Vol. 32, Part 3, No. 96, Summer 1979) ((copy available in Sheffield Local Studies Library ref. MP 2969 M)

McCracken, S., 'I am the lover and the loved-I have lost and found my identity': Edward Carpenter and fin-de-siecle Masculinities (Perspectives on Modern Literature,1998, Issue 20, pp. 139-161)

MacMillan, Carol B., 'The paths of E. M. Forster and Edward Carpenter: how Carpenter influenced the novels' (Thesis, Amherst College, Massachuesetts, USA, 1991)

Maiwald, Michael, 'Race, Capitalism, and the Third-Sex Ideal: Claude McKay's Home to Harlem and the Legacy of Edward Carpenter' (Modern Fiction Studies, Vo. 48, No. 4, Winter 2002, pp. 825-857)

Marsden, Steven Jay '"Hot Little Prophets": Reading, mysticism and Walt Whitman's Disciples' (PhD Dissertation, Texas A&M University, August 2004 (

Martin, Robert K., 'Edward Carpenter and the Double Structure of Maurice' (Kellogg, Stuart, 'Literary Visions of Homosexuality' (Haworth Press, 1983))

Matsui, Kyoko, 'Maurice and Uranian Love: E.M.Forster's Maurice and Edward Carpenter's The Intermediate Sex' (Hakuoh Daigaku ronshu : the Hakuoh University journal, Vol. 16 No. 2, p. 89-112)

Pannapacker, William 'Revised Lives: Walt Whitman and Nineteenth-Century Authorship' (Routledge, 2003)

Pannapacker, William '"The bricklayer shall lay me": Edward Carpenter, Walt Whitman, and Working-Class "Comradeship." (Mapping Male Sexuality:
Nineteenth-Century England. Edited by Jay Losey and William D. Brewer, Associated University Press, 2000. pp277-298.)

Pearsall, Ronald, 'The Worm in the Bud: The World of Victorian Sexuality' (Sutton, 2003) (Copies of 1969 edition available in Sheffield Local Studies Library, ref. 176 ST and in Sheffield Arts and Social Sciences Library, ref 301.42)

Rahman, Tariq, 'The Alienated Prophet: The Relationship between Edward Carpenter's Psyche and the Development of His Metaphysic' (Forum for Modern Language Studies, Vol. 23 No. 3, 1987, pp. 193-209)

Rowbotham, Sheila, 'In Search of Carpenter' (History Workshop Journal, 1977, No. 3, pp. 121 - 137)

Rowbotham, Sheila and Weeks, Jeffrey, 'Socialism and the new life: the personal and sexual politics of Edward Carpenter and Havelock Ellis' (London: Pluto Press, 1977) (Copy available at Sheffield Arts and Social Sciences Library ref. 301.424))

Russell, Paul, 'The Gay 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Gay Men and Lesbians, Past and Present' (Kensington Books, 2002)

Salveson, Paul, 'Loving comrades: Lancashire's links to Walt Whitman' (Walt Whitman Quarterly Review , Vol. 14, Nos. 2-3 (1997), pp.57-84)

Searle, G R., 'A New England?: Peace and War 1886-1918' (Oxford University Press, 1998)

Sheppard, James W., 'Environmentalism: A Global History (review)'
(in Ethics & the Environment, Vol. 8, No. 2, Autumn 2003, pp. 132-139)

Sime, Andrew Hutcheson Moncur 'Edward Carpenter, his ideas and ideals' (London & C 1915)

Simons, John, 'Edward Carpenter, Whitman and the Radical Aesthetic' (Gender Roles and Sexuality in Victorian Literature Scolar Press, 1995.
pp. 115-127)

Smith, Timothy D'Arch, 'Love in Earnest: Some Notes on the Lives and Writings of English 'Uranian' Poets from 1889 to 1930' (Routledge & K. Paul, 1970) (extract available in Sheffield Local Studies Library ref. 821.09 ST)

Spencer, Colin, 'The Heretic's Feast: A History of Vegetarianism' (UPNE, 1996)

Stewart, Christopher Buren, 'In Paths Untrodden: Queer Spiritual Autobiography - Ireland, Walt Whitman, Edward Carpenter, Oscar Wilde, Christopher Isherwood)' (Dissertation, Case Western University, 2002)

Swan, Tom, 'Edward Carpenter: the man and his message' (J. Cape, 1922) (Copy available at Sheffield Central Lending Library ref. B.CARP))

Tamagne, Florence 'A History of Homosexuality in Europe. Vol. 1, Berlin, London, Paris, 1919-1939' (Algora, 2004)

Tsuzuki, Chushichi, 'Edward Carpenter 1844-1929: prophet of human fellowship' (Cambridge University Press, 1980) (Copy available at Sheffield Central Lending Library ref. B.CARP and Sheffield Local Studies Library ref. B Carp S and C Carp S))

Wall, Derek 'Green History: A Reader in Environmental Literature, Philosophy, and Politics' (Routledge,1994)

Weeks, Jeffrey, 'Sexuality and Its Discontents: Meanings, Myths, & Modern Sexualities' (Routledge, 1985)

Weir, L. 'Cosmic consciousness and the love of comrades: contacts between R. M. Bucke and Edward Carpenter' (Journal of Canadian Studies, 1995, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 39-57)
CustodialHistoryThe bulk of this collection (ie Carpenter's manuscripts, library, photographs and newscuttings) was donated to Sheffield City Libraries by T. Nicholson in 1933. Carpenter had previously given all of the material to Nicholson.
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