RefNoX844
Title[Lockwood and Carlisle Ltd., Marine Engineers, Sheffield]
AdminHistoryThe origins of the company began in 1828 when William Carlisle began a small business as a table knife maker at 20 Grindle Gate, Sheffield. By 1837 the business was recorded as being at No. 23 Orchard Lane and included ivory cutting for cutlery handles and piano keys. In 1860 the business became known as Carlisle Brothers, consisting of William Carlisle’s nephews Charles George Carlisle and his half-brother, William Henry.

At some point during the mid-1870s the brothers were approached by William Lockwood for financial backing for a steam piston ring he had invented. The brothers offered to buy his invention and manufacture it with the help of William Lockwood, which he agreed to. This resulted in the establishment of Carlisle Brothers and Lockwood, machinists and patent safety valve manufacturers and millwrights in 1876, based at Court 11, Lord Street, near Anson Street. Lockwood’s actual involvement with the works appears to have been minimal, and his association with the business came to an end in 1884.

From 1877 the business was known as W. Lockwood and C. G. Carlisle. Building on the original patent for the ring dated 13th Aug 1877 and further patents, the business grew progressively with the increase in steam reciprocating machinery for merchant shipping. The Carlisle brothers also maintained their ivory business, were machinists and millwrights, and did a wide variety of work for various people including making a sausage machine.

In 1879/1880 the firm appointed a Scottish agent called John Turnbull Junior, and leased land on Stalker Lees Road, Sheffield. This was a period when several marine engine builders were established in Scotland, and employing John Turnbull allowed the firm to meet the demands of the new industry. Leasing the land at Stalker Lees Road from E. H. Thompson and Mrs L. C. Harland for £30 a year allowed the firm to expand to meet the demands of this new industry. The works on this site was known as Eagle Foundry.

In 1886 William Henry Carlisle abandoned his interest in the businesses and the partnership with his half-brother Charles George was dissolved. Their joint property was auctioned off and Charles George bought it. Both works carried on, the ivory business under the original name of Carlisle Brothers. When Charles George Carlisle died in 1889, his will stipulated that the Carlisle Brothers ivory business should be bought by his sons William Lawton Carlisle (born 29 Nov 1846) and John Lawton Carlisle (born 20 Apr 1850). Lockwood and Carlisle was to be bought by his other three sons, Henry Carlisle (born 27 Aug 1856), Percy Carlisle (born 7 Nov 1858) and Arthur Carlisle (born 7 Jan 1852).

The death of Charles George Carlisle’s oldest son, William Lawton Carlisle on 27 Aug 1897, resulted in the family considering how the two businesses would continue into the future. On 1st Mar 1898 an agreement was signed by the family to establish two private limited companies - Carlisle Brothers Ltd, which would continue the ivory business, and Lockwood and Carlisle Ltd, which would concentrate on piston ring manufacture. 6,400 £1 shares of Lockwood and Carlisle Ltd were sold and divided equally between the eight signatories of the agreement - Elizabeth Carlisle (widow of William Lawton Carlisle), and Charles George’s other children, Charles Lawton Carlisle, John Lawton Carlisle, Arthur Carlisle, Kate Howarth, Henry Carlisle, Percy Carlisle and Ada Bedford (the wife of Frederick Bedford, the firm’s accountant). Henry Carlisle was elected Chairman, and he and Percy Carlisle were made life directors. The first meeting of the board was held 20 Aug 1898.

In the years before the First World War the business of W. Lockwood and C. G. Carlisle continued to expand. In 1899 the first “traveller” was employed, Mr W. Cooper Spurr. In 1908 the first foreign agent was employed, Mr J. S. Cock of Oslo, Norway, which would become the main export outlet for the company. Eagle Foundry was expanded at various times during the period, and in Nov 1912 the lease was purchased.

In 1909 Lockwood and Carlisle were commissioned by Harland and Wolff to produce piston rings and springs for engine number 400 (The Olympic) and engine number 401 (The Titanic).

In 1918, an American agent was appointed and then a Canadian agent in 1919. In 1935 the Board decided to begin the manufacture of diesel engine piston rings. Up to this point the business had only manufactured piston rings for steam engines, but diesel engines were becoming increasingly used. During the Second World War every Liberty and Victory ship built (many in the USA) had Lockwood and Carlisle piston rings fitted.

After the Second World War, demand for the original patent rings and springs for steam engines reached the highest figures attained during the war years, however, future demand would be for diesel rings. This resulted in a great amount of re-tooling and reorganisation of the factory, as the original machinery was not suitable for the production of diesel rings. Eagle Foundry was again expanded and modified at various times during the period to meet these changing needs.

In 1956 Lockwood and Carlisle purchased the share capital of William Ellis and Sons Ltd., of Lock Street Foundry, Sheffield, who had supplied the firm with its castings since 1887. The firm now had control over the quantity output, and could build new plant to meet their ever growing needs for the production of the different quality cast irons which were needed for marine diesel engines.

Further agents were appointed; Holland in 1946, Finland and Germany in 1958, Demark in 1959 and Sweden in 1960. Two new business ventures were also started during this period, the production of cylinder liners in 1959, and the reconditioning of diesel pistons in 1960. Reconditioning of diesel pistons would become a major part of the business rather than manufacturing replacement rings. In 1970, due to declining orders, the business made the decision to cease manufacturing Improved Patent Packing Rings for steam engines.

In 1964, Torday Ltd. of North Shields was approached by Lockwood and Carlisle to chromium plate piston grooves after reconditioning. This led to a combination of interests, and on 15 Sep 1965 an agreement was signed as a joint venture between Lockwood and Carlisle Ltd., Torday Ltd., and Van Der Host Ltd., each having a third share in the formation of a company in Holland known as Diesel Krome Engineering (D. K. E.) B. V. in Zwolle. As a result of the growth of the EEC it was strongly felt that a European base was needed to meet the growing demand and increasing market in this area. The factory was situated in the works of Van Der Host Ltd.

In 1969 Van Der Horst was sold to Unochrome International, a British company. In 1971, an existing factory in Zwolle was purchased, and D. K. E. was transferred to the new premises and a new works was set up with reconditioning and chrome plating equipment and storage facilities. In 1974 the company purchased a portion of the equity from Unochrome Ltd., making its participation 50%.

During the 1960s it became increasingly noticeable that considerable duplication of sales was being carried out by the two companies - Lockwood and Carlisle Ltd., and Torday Ltd. On 11 March 1969 the company, Lockwood, Torday and Carlise Ltd was established. The aim was to regularise the marketing of reconditioned piston heads and chrome plating in the marine field. Dr Laszlo Torday and Mr John Torday of Torday Ltd., together with Peter Baldwin and Michael Carlisle of Lockwood and Carlisle became directors of the new company. Laszlo Torday and Michael Carlisle became the joint Managing Directors. It was agreed that the UK and Greek sales were to be handled from Sheffield, and Torday Ltd. in North Shields were to handle export sales, purchasing and provide metallurgical research facilities. The piston ring side was to remain exclusively with Lockwood and Carlisle.

To expand the company’s interest and provide better service and greater penetration of the shipping market, sales companies were set up. On 22 Jun 1968 jointly with Van Der Horst Ltd., and Torday Ltd., Diesel Marine Engineering A/S was established in Oslo, replacing the work carried out by J. S. Cock, whose firm had been the firms agent since 1908. This new firm handled the sales in Norway, Sweden and USA.

In 1973 it was agreed with Diesel Krome Engineering and Torday Ltd., to purchase Van Der Horst (France) Ltd. In the same year Lockwood, Torday, Carilsle (Hong Kong) Ltd was established, operating as a separate company from their agents Manners Engineering Co. Ltd premises in Hong Kong’s repair yards. At around the same time Lindbald, Torday, Carlisle Singapore (Private) Ltd., was established by co-operation with Metalock Singapore (Private) Ltd. Considerable plant was installed at the port there and under licence agreements, chrome plating was carried out. In 1974, Lockwood, Torday, Carlisle (Hellas) Ltd was established in Greece.

1973 saw two directors appointed who were not members of the family, Dennis Bray, the Finance Director and Don Colquhoun, the Works Director.

In 1982 Lockwood and Carlisle Ltd and Torday Ltd reached an agreement on the terms of a merger offer made by M. J. H. Nightingale and Co Ltd on behalf of Torday for the whole of the issued share capital of Lockwood and Carlisle. The merger was seen as a means of providing a strengthened basis of operations and rationalising resources, as well as allowing for a unified policy on investment. Michael Carlisle, then chairman and managing director of Lockwood and Carlisle, J. H. Carlisle and D. J. Bray, directors, joined the board of the enlarged group, Torday changing its name to Torday and Carlisle PLC. Production was moved to the North East.

In 1997 both Lockwood and Carlisle and Standard Piston Rings came together under the banner of Piston Rings UK as part of the Koncentra group along with Daros Rings in Goteborg, Sweden and the brand Daros Industrial Rings UK was formed. At this time the firm relocated from the original Standard Piston Ring factory in Don Road, Sheffield to their current location in Rotherham (at the time of writing Feb 2019).

In 2010 Piston Rings UK was acquired from the Koncentra group of companies by Federal Mogul and continues to trade worldwide supplying industrial and large bore marine piston rings under its three famous brands.

Chairman of the Board:

Henry Carlisle 1898 - 1904
Fred Bedford 1904 - 1912
Percy Carlisle 1912 - 1926
Wilfrid Carlisle 1926 - 1935
F. C. Bedford 1935 - 1941
Edgar Carlisle 1941 - 1960
F. S. Bedford 1960 - 1970
J. Michael Carlisle 1970 - [1982]

Constitution of the Board of Directors:

1898 - 1904: Henry Carlisle, Arthur Carlisle, Percy Carlisle, Fred Bedford
1904 - 1912: Fred Bedford, Arthur Carlisle, Percy Carlisle, C. L. Carlisle
1912 - 1919: Percy Carlisle, Arthur Carlisle, C. L. Carlisle
1919 - 1926: Percy Carlisle, C. L. Carlisle, Wilfrid Carlisle
1926 - 1935: Wilfrid Carlisle, F. C. Bedford
1935 - 1941: F. C. Bedford, Edgar Carlisle, John Carlisle, F. S. Bedford
1941 - 1956: Edgar Carlisle, John Carlisle, F. S. Bedford, B. P. Carlisle
1956 - 1958: Edgar Carlisle, John Carlisle, F. S. Bedford, J. M. Carlisle
1958 - 1960: Edgar Carlisle, F. S. Bedford, J. M. Carlisle, P. T. Baldwin
1960 - 1962: F. S. Bedford, J. M. Carlisle, Edgar Carlisle, P. T. Baldwin
1962 - 1973: F. S. Bedford, J. M. Carlisle, P. T. Baldwin
1973 - [1982]: J. M. Carlisle, P. T. Baldwin, F. S. (Bob) Bedford, D. J. Bray, D. Colquhoun

Managing Directors:

The Board did not always appoint a Managing Director, but it is on record that Percy Carlisle sometimes signed the Minutes as Managing Director and sometimes as Chairman.

Wilfrid Carlisle was appointed in 1926.
John Hugh Carlisle was appointed in 1941.
From 1958 - 1960 F. S. Bedford and J. M. Carlisle were Joint Managing Directors.
1960 - [1982] J. M. Carlisle.

Agents of the company listed in order of appointment:

Scotland:
1879 - 1885 John Turnbull Junior
1885 - 1902 Daniel Ferguson Senior
1902 - 1952 Daniel Ferguson Junior
1953 Andrew Tennant (became known as Andrew Tennant and Co Ltd)

Norway:
1908 - 1968 J. S. Cock
1968 - Diesel Marine Engineering A/S

USA:
1918 - 1922 W. Carlisle Wallace
1922 - Kearfott Engineering Co. Inc. Became known as the Kearfott Division of General Precision Inc.

Canada:
1919 - 1952 Watson Jack and Co. Ltd.
1952 - Joseph Robb and Co. Ltd.

France:
1946 G. Bonnis. Became known as G. Bonnis & Cie. S/A.

Holland:
1946 N. V. Technisch-Bureau Van der Mark & Co.

Italy:
1950 Ing. A. de Martini.

Iceland:
1951 Fjalar Ltd.

Belgium:
1953 E. Martens

Syria:
1955 Jaques Francois Aho.

Finland:
1958 Insalko Ltd.

Germany:
1958 C. Haacke & Söhne.

Denmark:
1959 Lauritz Anderson and Co.

Sweden:
1960 Lennart Berggren and Co., A/B.
DescriptionLedgers and ships names.
Date1906 - 1961
Extent11 items
AccessStatusOpen
LevelCollection
RelatedMaterialSheffield City Archives:

Lockwood and Carlisle Ltd., Marine Engineers, ledgers, order books, etc., 19th - 20th cent (SY518)

‘Lockwood and Carlisle Ltd of Sheffield - A Chapter of Marine History’ Eric N. Simons 1962 (SIM/BUS SYCRO 1756).


Sheffield Local Studies Library:

‘Lockwood and Carlisle Ltd of Sheffield - A Chapter of Marine History.’ Eric N. Simons 1962 (338.4 SQ)

‘A hundred year's of history’ John N. Merrill 1976 (338.4 SQ)

Various Lockwood and Carlsile trade catalogues [1950s - 1970s] (TRC LOCK)

‘Care and maintenance of Lockwood and Carlisle's piston packings, Lockwood & Carlisle Ltd,’ 1960 (PAMP 867 S)
AcquisitionSourceThese records were found in Sheffield Town Hall strongroom amongst South Yorkshire Archives material in 2009. One of the items contained a label stating Lockwood & Carlisle Ltd, and several of the books in this collection match exactly the layout and information contained in several ledgers within the SY518 collection. The items in this collection may have become separated from the original Lockwood and Carlisle Ltd accession that was deposited with the South Yorkshire Country Record Office in 1983 (accession number SYCRO 557, reference SY518). However, there is no paperwork to confirm this and the depositor is therefore unknown. These items have therefore been catalogued as separate from SY518.
ArchNoteCatalogued by Benjamin Longden, Jan 2019.
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